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3.1: On Marriage

WHEN a girl of the same caste, and a virgin, is married in accordance with the precepts of Holy Writ, the results of such a union are the acquisition of Dharma and Artha, offspring, affinity, increase of friends, and untarnished love. For this reason a man should fix his affections upon a girl who is of good family, whose parents are alive, and who is three years or more younger than himself. She should be born of a highly respectable family, possessed of wealth, well connected, and with many relations and friends. She should also be beautiful, of a good disposition, with lucky marks on her body, and with good hair, nails, teeth, ears, eyes and breasts, neither more nor less than they ought to be, and no one of them entirely wanting, and not troubled with a sickly body. The man should, of course, also possess these qualities himself. But at all events, says Ghotakamukha, a girl who has been already joined with others (i.e. no longer a maiden) should never be loved, for it would be reproachable to do such a thing.

Now in order to bring about a marriage with such a girl as described above, thee parents and relations of the man should exert themselves, as also such friends on both sides as may be desired to assist in the matter. These friends should bring to the notice of the girl's parents, the faults, both present and future, of all the other men that may wish to marry her, and should at the same time extol even to exaggeration all the excellencies, ancestral, and paternal, of their friend, so as to endear him to them, and particularly to those that may be liked by the girl's mother. One of the friends should also disguise himself as an astrologer, and declare the future good fortune and wealth of his friend by showing the existence of all the lucky omens and signs, the good influence of planets, the auspicious entrance of the sun into a sign of the Zodiac, propitious stars and fortunate marks on his body. Others again should rouse the jealousy of the girl's mother by telling her that their friend has a chance of getting from some other quarter even a better girl than hers.

A girl should be taken as a wife, as also given in marriage, when fortune, signs, omens, and the words  of others are favourable, for, says Ghotakamukha, a man should not marry at any time he likes. A girl who is asleep, crying, or gone out of the house when sought in marriage, or who is betrothed to another, should not be married. The following also should be avoided:

    One who is kept concealed
    One who has an ill-sounding name
    One who has her nose depressed
    One who has her nostril turned up
    One who is formed like a male
    One who is bent down
    One who has crooked thighs
    One who has a projecting forehead
    One who has a bald head
    One who does not like purity
    One who has been polluted by another
    One who is affected with the Gulma
    One who is disfigured in any way
    One who has fully arrived at puberty
    One who is a friend
    One who is a younger sister
    One who is a Varshakari

In the same way a girl who is called by the name of one of the twenty-seven stars, or by the name of a tree, or of a river, is considered worthless, as also a girl whose name ends in 'r' or 'l'. But some authors say that prosperity is gained only by marrying that girl to whom one becomes attached, and that therefore no other girl but the one who is loved should be married by anyone.

When a girl becomes marriageable her parents should dress her smartly, and should place her where she can be easily seen by all. Every afternoon, having dressed her and decorated her in a becoming manner, they should send her with her female companions to sports, sacrifices, and marriage ceremonies, and thus show her to advantage in society, because she is a kind of merchandise. They should also receive with kind words and signs of friendliness those of an auspicious appearance who may come accompanied by their friends and relations for the purpose of marrying their daughter, and under some pretext or other having first dressed her becomingly, should then present her to them. After this they should await the pleasure of fortune, and with this object should appoint a future day on which a determination could be come to with regard to their daughter's marriage. On this occasion when the persons have come, the parents of the girl should ask them to bathe and dine, and should say, 'Everything will take place at the proper time', and should not then comply with the request, but should settle the matter later.

When a girl is thus acquired, either according to the custom of the country, or according to his own desire, the man should marry her in accordance with the precepts of the Holy Writ, according to one of the four kinds of marriage.

Thus ends marriage.

There are also some verses on the subject as follows:

'Amusement in society, such as completing verses begun by others, marriages, and auspicious ceremonies should be carried on neither with superiors, nor inferiors, but with our equals. That should be known as a high connection when a man, after marrying a girl, has to serve her and her relations afterwards like a servant, and such a connection is censured by the good. On the other hand, that reproachable connection, where a man, together with his relations, lords it over his wife, is called a low connection by the wise. But when both the man and the woman afford mutual pleasure to each other, and when the relatives on both sides pay respect to one another, such is called a connection in the proper sense of the word. Therefore a man should contract neither a high connection by which he is obliged to bow down afterwards to his kinsmen, nor a low connection, which is universally reprehended by all.'

Kama Sutra Of Vatsayana

Vātsyāyana
Chapters
Kama Sutra
Part I
1.1: Preface
1.2 : On the acquisition of Dharma, Artha and Kama
1.3 : On the Arts and Sciences to be studied
1.4 : The Life of a Citizen
1.5 : About the kinds of women resorted to by the citizens, and of friends and messengers
Part II
2.1: Kinds of sexual union according to dimensions, force of desire or passion, time
2.2 : of the Embrace
2.3 : On Kissing
2.4 : On Pressing, or Marking, or Scratching with the Nails
2.5: On Biting, and the means to be employed with regard to women of different countries
2.6 : On the different ways of lying down, and various kinds of congress
2.7 : Of the various modes of striking, and of the sounds appropriate to them
2.8 : About Women acting the part of a Man; and the work of a Man
2.9: Of the Auparishtaka or Mouth Congress
2.10: How to begin and end the congress, Kinds of congress & Love Quarrels
Part III
3.1: On Marriage
3.2 : For creating confidence in the girl
3.3 : Of Courtship and the showing feelings by outwards signs and deeds
3.4 : Things to do for winning partner
3.5 : On certain forms of marriage
Part IV
4.1: On the manner of living of a virtuous woman, and of her behaviour during the absence of her husband
4.2: On the conduct among wives of a husband; Conduct of a re-married virgin woman; Of a wife disliked by her husband; Of the women in the king's Harem; And on conduct of husband towards many wives.
5.1: Of the characteristics of men and women. The reasons why women reject the addresses of men. About men who have success with women, and about women who are easily gained over
5.2: About making acquaintance with the woman, and of the efforts to gain her over
5.3: Examination of the state of a woman's mind
5.4: About the business of a Go-Between
5.5: About the love of persons in authority for the wives of other men
5.6: About the women of the royal harem; and of the keeping of ones own wife
Part VI
6 Introduction: About Courtesans
6.1: Of the causes of Courtesan resorting to men
6.2: Of living like a wife
6.3: Of the means of geting money, of the signs of the change in lover's feelings, and of the way to get rid of him
6.4: About reunion with former lover
6.5: Of different kinds of gain
6.6: Of gains and losses; Different kinds of courtesans etc.
Part VII
7.1: On personal adornment; On subjugating the hearts of others; And on tonic medicines
7.2: Of the ways of exciting desire; experiments and recipes
Conclusive Remarks on Kama Sutra