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1.3 : On the Arts and Sciences to be studied

MAN should study the Kama Sutra and the arts and sciences subordinate thereto, in addition to the study of the arts and sciences contained in Dharma and Artha. Even young maids should study this Kama Sutra along with its arts and sciences before marriage, and after it they should continue to do so with the consent of their husbands.

Here some learned men object, and say that females, not being allowed to study any science, should not study the Kama Sutra.

But Vatsyayana is of opinion that this objection does not hold good, for women already know the practice of Kama Sutra, and that practice is derived from the Kama Shastra, or the science of Kama itself. Moreover, it is not only in this but in many other cases that, though the practice of a science is known to all, only a few persons are acquainted with the rules and laws on which the science is based. Thus the Yadnikas or sacrificers, though ignorant of grammar, make use of appropriate words when addressing the different Deities, and do not know how these words are framed. Again, persons do the duties required of them on auspicious days, which are fixed by astrology, though they are not acquainted with the science of astrology. In a like manner riders of horses and elephants train these animals without knowing the science of training animals, but from practice only. And similarly the people of the most distant provinces obey the laws of the kingdom from practice, and because there is a king over them, and without further reason. And from experience we find that some women, such as daughters of princes and their ministers, and public women, are actually versed in the Kama Shastra.

A female, therefore, should learn the Kama Shastra, or at least a part of it, by studying its practice from some confidential friend. She should study alone in private the sixty-four practices that form a part of the Kama Shastra. Her teacher should be one of the following persons: the daughter of a nurse brought up with her and already married, or a female friend who can be trusted in everything, or the sister of her mother (i.e. her aunt), or an old female servant, or a female beggar who may have formerly lived in the family, or her own sister who can always be trusted.

The following are the arts to be studied, together with the Kama Sutra:

    Singing
    Playing on musical instruments
    Dancing
    Union of dancing, singing, and playing instrumental music
    Writing and drawing
    Tattooing
    Arraying and adorning an idol with rice and flowers
    Spreading and arranging beds or couches of flowers, or flowers upon the ground
    Colouring the teeth, garments, hair, nails and bodies, i.e. staining, dyeing, colouring and painting the same
    Fixing stained glass into a floor
    The art of making beds, and spreading out carpets and cushions for reclining
    Playing on musical glasses filled with water
    Storing and accumulating water in aqueducts, cisterns and reservoirs
    Picture making, trimming and decorating
    Stringing of rosaries, necklaces, garlands and wreaths
    Binding of turbans and chaplets, and making crests and top-knots of flowers
    Scenic representations, stage playing Art of making ear ornaments Art of preparing perfumes and odours
    Proper disposition of jewels and decorations, and adornment in dress
    Magic or sorcery
    Quickness of hand or manual skill
    Culinary art, i.e. cooking and cookery
    Making lemonades, sherbets, acidulated drinks, and spirituous extracts with proper flavour and colour
    Tailor's work and sewing
    Making parrots, flowers, tufts, tassels, bunches, bosses, knobs, etc., out of yarn or thread
    Solution of riddles, enigmas, covert speeches, verbal puzzles and enigmatical questions
    A game, which consisted in repeating verses, and as one person finished, another person had to commence at once, repeating another verse, beginning with the same letter with which the last speaker's verse ended, whoever failed to repeat was considered to have lost, and to be subject to pay a forfeit or stake of some kind
    The art of mimicry or imitation
    Reading, including chanting and intoning
    Study of sentences difficult to pronounce. It is played as a game chiefly by women, and children and consists of a difficult sentence being given, and when repeated quickly, the words are often transposed or badly pronounced
    Practice with sword, single stick, quarter staff and bow and arrow
    Drawing inferences, reasoning or inferring
    Carpentry, or the work of a carpenter
    Architecture, or the art of building
    Knowledge about gold and silver coins, and jewels and gems
    Chemistry and mineralogy
    Colouring jewels, gems and beads
    Knowledge of mines and quarries
    Gardening; knowledge of treating the diseases of trees and plants, of nourishing them, and determining their ages
    Art of cock fighting, quail fighting and ram fighting
    Art of teaching parrots and starlings to speak
    Art of applying perfumed ointments to the body, and of dressing the hair with unguents and perfumes and braiding it
    The art of understanding writing in cypher, and the writing of words in a peculiar way
    The art of speaking by changing the forms of words. It is of various kinds. Some speak by changing the beginning and end of words, others by adding unnecessary letters between every syllable of a word, and so on
    Knowledge of language and of the vernacular dialects
    Art of making flower carriages
    Art of framing mystical diagrams, of addressing spells and charms, and binding armlets
    Mental exercises, such as completing stanzas or verses on receiving a part of them; or supplying one, two or three lines when the remaining lines are given indiscriminately from different verses, so as to make the whole an entire verse with regard to its meaning; or arranging the words of a verse written irregularly by separating the vowels from the consonants, or leaving them out altogether; or putting into verse or prose sentences represented by signs or symbols. There are many other such exercises.
    Composing poems
    Knowledge of dictionaries and vocabularies
    Knowledge of ways of changing and disguising the appearance of persons
    Knowledge of the art of changing the appearance of things, such as making cotton to appear as silk, coarse and common things to appear as fine and good
    Various ways of gambling
    Art of obtaining possession of the property of others by means of muntras or incantations
    Skill in youthful sports
    Knowledge of the rules of society, and of how to pay respect and compliments to others
    Knowledge of the art of war, of arms, of armies, etc.
    Knowledge of gymnastics
    Art of knowing the character of a man from his features
    Knowledge of scanning or constructing verses
    Arithmetical recreations
    Making artificial flowers
    Making figures and images in clay

A public woman, endowed with a good disposition, beauty and other winning qualities, and also versed in the above arts, obtains the name of a Ganika, or public woman of high quality, and receives a seat of honour in an assemblage of men. She is, moreover, always respected by the king, and praised by learned men, and her favour being sought for by all, she becomes an object of universal regard. The daughter of a king too as well as the daughter of a minister, being learned in the above arts, can make their husbands favourable to them, even though these may have thousands of other wives besides themselves. And in the same manner, if a wife becomes separated from her husband, and falls into distress, she can support herself easily, even in a foreign country, by means of her knowledge of these arts. Even the bare knowledge of them gives attractiveness to a woman, though the practice of them may be only possible or otherwise according to the circumstances of each case. A man who is versed in these arts, who is loquacious and acquainted with the arts of gallantry, gains very soon the hearts of women, even though he is only acquainted with them for a short time.

Kama Sutra Of Vatsayana

Vātsyāyana
Chapters
Kama Sutra
Part I
1.1: Preface
1.2 : On the acquisition of Dharma, Artha and Kama
1.3 : On the Arts and Sciences to be studied
1.4 : The Life of a Citizen
1.5 : About the kinds of women resorted to by the citizens, and of friends and messengers
Part II
2.1: Kinds of sexual union according to dimensions, force of desire or passion, time
2.2 : of the Embrace
2.3 : On Kissing
2.4 : On Pressing, or Marking, or Scratching with the Nails
2.5: On Biting, and the means to be employed with regard to women of different countries
2.6 : On the different ways of lying down, and various kinds of congress
2.7 : Of the various modes of striking, and of the sounds appropriate to them
2.8 : About Women acting the part of a Man; and the work of a Man
2.9: Of the Auparishtaka or Mouth Congress
2.10: How to begin and end the congress, Kinds of congress & Love Quarrels
Part III
3.1: On Marriage
3.2 : For creating confidence in the girl
3.3 : Of Courtship and the showing feelings by outwards signs and deeds
3.4 : Things to do for winning partner
3.5 : On certain forms of marriage
Part IV
4.1: On the manner of living of a virtuous woman, and of her behaviour during the absence of her husband
4.2: On the conduct among wives of a husband; Conduct of a re-married virgin woman; Of a wife disliked by her husband; Of the women in the king's Harem; And on conduct of husband towards many wives.
5.1: Of the characteristics of men and women. The reasons why women reject the addresses of men. About men who have success with women, and about women who are easily gained over
5.2: About making acquaintance with the woman, and of the efforts to gain her over
5.3: Examination of the state of a woman's mind
5.4: About the business of a Go-Between
5.5: About the love of persons in authority for the wives of other men
5.6: About the women of the royal harem; and of the keeping of ones own wife
Part VI
6 Introduction: About Courtesans
6.1: Of the causes of Courtesan resorting to men
6.2: Of living like a wife
6.3: Of the means of geting money, of the signs of the change in lover's feelings, and of the way to get rid of him
6.4: About reunion with former lover
6.5: Of different kinds of gain
6.6: Of gains and losses; Different kinds of courtesans etc.
Part VII
7.1: On personal adornment; On subjugating the hearts of others; And on tonic medicines
7.2: Of the ways of exciting desire; experiments and recipes
Conclusive Remarks on Kama Sutra